Yr 10 commerce assignment Introduction: This assignment deals with the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Australian . It will go explain in depth their origins, motives objectives and achievements. History: Labor Party: The Labor party has recently celebrated its centenary in 1991, making it Australia’s oldest party. Labor first became a Federal Party when the former colonies of Australia federated in 1901. Separate labour parties had been established in the colonies during the formative decade of the 1890 s. These parties were sponsored by the trade union movement, to help get sympathetic politicians elected to colonial parliaments.
In Western Australia, Tasmania and Victoria, there were no strong and coherent labour parties until after federation. However, by 1900 strong labour parties had emerged in Queensland and New South Wales, quickly taking up a prominent role in Parliamentary politics. Australia’s first labour government took office in Queensland in 1899. It lasted seven days. Although these early labour parties were strongly influenced by the trade unions, they were never confined to union membership and interests. Their earliest programs and platforms show that they sought the support of farmers, small businessmen and non-union employees including clerical and other white-collar workers.
The Australian Labor Party entered federal politics at the first Commonwealth elections of 1901, when 16 Labor members were elected to the House of Representatives and eight to the Senate. They met before the first sitting of Parliament on 8 May 1901 and agreed to form a Federal Labor Party. J. C.
(Chris) Watson, a Sydney printer and a former member of the NSW Parliament, was elected the first Leader of the Party. Liberal Party: In 1944, the Liberal Party of Australia was founded after a three-day meeting held in a small hall not far from Parliament House in Canberra. The meeting was called by the then Leader of the Opposition (United Australia Party), Robert Menzies. Robert Menzies had already served as Prime Minister of Australia (1939-40), but he believed that the non-Labor parties should unite to present a strong alternative government to the Australian people. Eighty men and women from 18 non-Labor political parties and organisations attended the first Canberra conference. They shared a common belief that Australians should have greater personal freedom and choice than that offered under Labor’s post-war socialist plans.
Robert Menzies believed the time was right for a new political force in Australia. On October 16, 1944, the name The Liberal Party of Australia was adopted, uniting the many different political organisations. Two months later, at the Albury Conference, the Party’s organisational and constitutional framework was drawn up. The name Liberal was chosen deliberately for its associations with progressive nineteenth century free enterprise and social equality.
By May 1945 membership of the Liberal Party had swelled to 40, 000. It fought its first election in 1946 with some success and in 1947, the Liberal Party won State Government in Western Australia, South Australia and Victoria. In 1949 the Liberals, in coalition with the Country Party, were first elected to national government. Sir Robert Menzies went on to lead Australia and the Liberal Party for 17 years, before he retired from politics in 1966.
As can be shown the Labor party was the first united party in Australia and has a history dating back well into the 19 th century. The Liberal party was formed specifically to oppose the Labor party and later joined with the country party to increase its power and influence. LEADERSHIP: Labor Party: Watson Andrew Fisher. M. Hughes Frank Tudor Matthew Charlton J. H ScullinJohn Curtin J.
B Chifley Dr H. V EvattArthur Cal wellE. G Whitlam Bill Hayden Bob Hawke Paul Keating Kim Beazley Simon Creek Liberal Party: Robert Menzies Harold Holt John Gorton William McMahon Bill SneddenMalcolm Fraser Andrew Peacock John Howard Andrew Peacock John Hewson Alexander Downer John Howard IDEOLOGY AND SUPPORTERS: Labor Party: Labor believes that all people are created equal in their entitlement to dignity and respect, and should have an equal chance to achieve their potential. For Labor, government has a critical role in ensuring fairness by: o Ensuring equal opportunity; o Removing unjustifiable discrimination; and o Achieving a more equitable distribution of wealth, income and status. Liberal Party: The Liberal party believes in equal opportunity for all Australians; and the encouragement and facilitation of wealth so that all may enjoy the highest possible standards of living, health, education and social justice.
It believes that, wherever possible, government should not compete with an efficient private sector; and that businesses and individuals – not government – are the true creators of wealth and employment. Therefore it is obvious that generally, big companies support Liberal, and the union workers / labourers support Labor. ORGANISATION: Labor Party: The ALP is organised as a federal body with a national organisation superimposed on six State and two Territorial branches. The National Conference is the supreme governing authority of the Party. Its decisions are binding on every member and every section of the Party. The Conference meets every three years.
It last met in Hobart, Tasmania in July-August 2000. Its main function is to approve changes in the Party Platform and to revise the constitution and rules where necessary. The National Conference is made up of approximately 190 delegates on a basis roughly proportional to the number of federal seats in each State and Territory. Included in the delegates are: two delegates from Australian Young Labor, the Parliamentary leader in each State, and the four leaders of the Federal Parliamentary Party.
Apart from the regular meetings, special National Conferences can be called in certain circumstances. The National Conference is the apex of the pyramid which rises on a base of thousands of local branches of the ALP throughout Australia. Liberal Party: The Liberal Party can be broken down into two main sections; the Organisational wing and the Parliamentary wing. The Organisational and Parliamentary wings of the Liberal Party each have clearly defined and separate roles. In the Liberal Party, the Organisational wing cannot dictate policy but consults with and advises the Parliamentary wing, particularly on the development of longer-term policies. The Organisational wing is based on the Party’s paid membership of supporters, and across Australia, the Liberal Party has more than 80, 000 members in more than 2000 branches which are governed by their respective State Liberal Party structure – known as ‘Divisions’.
The Organisational wing is responsible for: the Party’s ‘Platform’ – the broad statement of Liberal fundamental beliefs and intentions; pre-selection of the Party’s candidates for elections; management and conduct of election campaigns; and fund-raising. The Parliamentary wing of the Liberal Party is made up of Federal and State parliamentarians. The Parliamentary wing is responsible for: the representation of electorates held by Liberal Party Members of Parliament the Liberal Party’s policies, strategies and parliamentary priorities guided by the principles contained in the ‘Party Platform.’ As we can see both parties are very well structured with the same basic ideas for organisation. ACHIEVEMENTS: The list of achievements of these two parties is a very, very long list. Therefore I have picked one era out of many and listed the achievements made by the particular party during this time. Labor Party: Overview of the achievements of the Hawke and Keating Governments Establishment of Medicare, designed to ensure a universal, comprehensive and fair system of health insurance, guaranteeing a fair system of health cover for all Australians.
More than two million new jobs created. Increased financial assistance to families, especially those on low incomes, to help meet the cost of raising children. Introduction of policies to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of Australian industry and the introduction of enterprise bargaining into industrial relations. Establishment of the Prices and Incomes Accord which reduced industrial disputes to record low levels, increased the social wage, gave workers access to superannuation and created a safer and fairer working environment. Extensive reform of the taxation system, making it fairer and more efficient for individuals, as well as creating a competitive financial system attuned to the needs of the business sector. Integration of employment, education and training policies, to create job opportunities and, through Labor’s training initiatives, to improve the skills of our workforce.
Improved school retention rates. Under Labor seven out of 10 students completed secondary school compared with three in 10 in the early 1980 s. Increased emphasis placed on environmental issues, focussing on the importance of protecting the environment for the future, and on ecologically sustainable development. Progress towards reconciliation with Aboriginal Australians, including the introduction of the Native Title Act (Mayo) in response to the decision of the High Court to recognise native title in Australia.
Development of a National Agenda for Women, designed to keep women’s issues on the political agenda, as well as promoting justice and equality for women, notably through the establishment of the Affirmative Action Agency. Consideration of options, in consultation with the Australian community for Australia to become a republic – with an Australian chosen by Australians as Australia’s Head of State – to encourage an informed debate ahead of a referendum. Liberal Party: Some Achievements of the Menzies Era (1949-1966) The Menzies period is recognised as a golden era in Australia’s history with widespread prosperity, a flourishing economy and work for all. Some features: high living standards for all Australians and the level of consumer goods per head (cars, radios etc) rose dramatically the ratio of home owners rose from little over 50% to around 75% of the population in a decade great progress in industry, manufacturing output, primary industry production and mineral development Australia achieved a position in the world’s top ten trading nations Instigation of some of the major foreign powers treaties including SEATO and ANZUS, along with close co-operation with the Commonwealth and other allies consistent spending on defence programmes the arrival of 1 million immigrants in ten years introduction of a succession of social security measures such as creating the pensioner medical and free medicines service expansion of support for education programmes introduction of needed improvements such as the national divorce laws Among specific initiatives of this period: child endowment introduced for the first child free medical treatment for pensioners and dependants free milk to school children abolished land and entertainment tax introduced Medical Benefits Scheme, and introduce free life-saving drugs for needy helped negotiate ANZUS and SEATO treaties promoter of Columbo Plan assisting SE Asian nations reciprocity in social security with United Kingdom encouraged growth of Canberra as a national capital introduced Homes for Aged Scheme introduced capital grants to mental hospitals and aid for teaching hospitals tax deductions introduced for school fees and allied expenditure introduced National Health Scheme based on self-help, providing cover for all citizens voted in international forum to restrict nuclear completed rail standardization Sydney to Melbourne and funded other standardization works completed dams including Cho willa and B lowering tax concessions introduced for married pensioners development of beef roads scheme to develop the inland special grants introduced for anti-tuberculosis campaigns introduced Department of Housing, Home Savings Grants Scheme and Housing Loans Insurance Corporation to help more Australians own their own home establishment of sheltered workshops introduced Aged Pensioners Home Assistance Scheme introduced invalid pensions established Australian Universities Commission established Commonwealth Scholarships introduction of Commonwealth scholarships for secondary schools as means of introducing State Aid to all schools funding for CAE’s CONCLUSION: These parties are two of the oldest, biggest and most well structured Australian political parties. They are only parties to have held power in the House of Rep’s in Australia. They are rivals and their philosophies are almost directly opposed to each other but they share many similarities concerning organisation, structure, achievements and tactics.
They have juggled power between them and Australia has emerged a powerful and intelligent nation under their leadership. By: Persis Esk ander Bibliography: Official Labor Party Website Official Liberal Party Website web.